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Movement

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...In a conventional camera, lens and image planes are in a fixed parallel relationship. This means the plane of focus will be always parallel to the camera back. With a view camera, both image plane (the film back) and lens plane can...

Reciprocity

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...The law of reciprocity is the key to photographic exposure. It states: the density of the image formed is in direct proportion to the intensity of light and its duration. For a given sensitivity, exposure is the balance between duration...

Rule of Thirds

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...Geometric aids are often more useful for cropping at image-editing stage, although they can be used quite deliberately for object placement in studio still-life images, as shown here.This is a compositional device based on the idea...

Rule of Thirds

Gavin Ambrose

Gavin Ambrose is an author, educator and practicing graphic designer whose client base includes the art sector, galleries, publishers and advertising agencies. He has written and designed numerous books on graphic design, branding and packaging. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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and

Paul Harris

Paul Harris is a freelance writer and editor whose work appears extensively in magazines and journals in the US and UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Graphic Design

AVA Publishing SA, 2007

Book chapter

...A guide to photographic composition and layout intended to help produce dynamic results. The rule of thirds works by superimposing a basic 3 x 3 grid over a page, which creates active ‘hotspots’ where the grid lines intersect. Locating key...

Sharpening

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...Sharpness is a subjective term combining the ideas of resolution (amount of detail) and acutance. A sharp image is one that is clean, crisp and finely detailed. The main causes of an image not being sharp are: camera shake, poor focus...

Reading the signs

Richard Salkeld

Having held the posts of course leader on both the Visual Arts and History of Art and Visual Culture courses at the University of Gloucestershire, Richard Salkeld is now senior lecturer in the university's Art and Design department, teaching undergraduate students of photography. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Reading Photographs : An Introduction the Theory and Meaning of Images

Fairchild Books, 2014

Book chapter

...Title: It’s a dog’s life, 1980Photographer: John IngledewThe double take is momentary, but even after the brain has worked out that this is a picture of a man holding a dog, the eyes insist on seeing a ‘dog-man’.Imagine you woke up...

Focal Plane

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...Technically speaking, the focal plane is the imaginary flat surface inside the camera where the image is focused. There is also an imaginary flat surface that cuts through the subject where the lens is focused, which should correctly...

kelvin

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...The kelvin is a measure of the colour temperature of a light source. It is one of the base units in the si system of measurement. The kelvin scale, first proposed in 1848, is a thermodynamic temperature scale starting at absolute zero....

Noise

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...Noise is to digital photography as grain is to film. Digital noise is best described as ‘pixels out of place’ in the regular pattern of the pixel mosaic. It appears as black-and-white pixels (Luma noise) or as colour pixels (Chroma noise)....

Perspective

David Präkel

David Präkel has enjoyed a successful and diverse career in journalism, photography and education. He has taught photography at all levels in the UK and America, at the prestigious Kodak Imaging Training Centre and in his own training workshops in Northumberland. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The Visual Dictionary of Photography

AVA Publishing SA, 2010

Book chapter

...Long focal-length lenses seem to compress depth, known as shallow perspective (top), while wide-angle lenses give the opposite effect, sometimes referred to as exaggerated perspective (bottom).Perspective is the means by which we interpret...